Tag Archives: Python

Home-Automation using 433Mhz RC-Sockets

The small 35 liters fish tank in my living room is illuminated with a 6400 K energy-saving bulb. The light is controlled by a power outlet with a build-in digital timer. Unfortunately, the timer is somewhat complicated to program. Since it is not backed with a battery, one is losing all settings each time it is being disconnected. Therefore I wanted to control the light in a more convenient manner.


Recently, I stumbled upon a kit of cheap (less than 10 €) 433 MHz RC power sockets. I soon had in mind to let my RasPi server take care about the fish tank illumination by connecting one of these sockets to the aquarium.G550694Each socket has a row of ten dip switches on its backside, in order to set a system code and to assign it to one out of four buttons on the remote control (A – D). The socket communicates at a frequency of 433 MHz, using ASK modulation. Although it would be possible to solder some wires to the remote buttons, directly connecting them with RasPi’s GPIO header, it is much more safe and convenient (and consuming less GPIO pins) to control the sockets using a 433 MHz transmitter.

433 MHz transmitter

PDR_0195It is important to chose a transmitter capable to communicate by ASK-, rather than FSK modulation (such as the HOPERF RFM12B). It requires only one GPIO pin to talk to Raspberry and can be safely wired to +5 V, since we’re not reading anything from the GPIO pin.

Download and install rcswitch-pi

For transmitting signals to the rc-switches, I downloaded the following code to my Pi:

$ git clone https://github.com/r10r/rcswitch-pi

in send.cpp I changed the line reading int PIN = 0; to the GPIO pin connected to the transmitter. GPIO numbering is done according to the WiringPi library:

gpio1Then, I typed “make”, chmod 755 and moved the “send” program into my binary PATH (e.g. /usr/local/bin).

Dynamic webcam control (update)

Several weeks of testing revealed that my Python script for time-dependent webcam control works quite reliable. However, there were a few over-/or underexposed images close to sunset or sunrise. Turning off auto-exposure during daytime helped to prevent overexposed pictures, especially on bright and sunny days.

These fixed exposure settings resulted in too dark images on rainy and cloudy days. Since most webcams are optimized for indoor use, it is safe to use auto-exposure settings under these weather conditions. But how to let a script decide about that? For this purpose, I adopted the ImageStat function of the Python Imageprocessing Library (PIL), which allows to calculate an average arbitrary value for brightness. If it drops below a certain threshold level, auto-exposure settings are activated. Before calculation of brightness, the image is converted to gray-scale. The whole operation is done in memory, without the need to save a temporary file to disk.

Dynamic webcam control using (py)ephem

Time-dependent webcam control

For taking still images with a webcam looking outside my sleeping room window, I’ve attached a Logitech C510 to my RasPi. At first, I used the fswebcam program to acquire still images, which can be easily configured using a fswebcam.conf file as follows:

quiet device v4l2:/dev/video0
input 0
skip 50
palette MJPEG
resolution 1600x1200
set "White Balance Temperature, Auto"=1
set "Exposure, Auto"=3
set "Backlight Compensation"=1
#set "sharpness"=100
#set "gain"=0{c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}
#set "exposure"=1
#set "brightness"=35{c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}
#set "contrast"=10{c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}
#set "saturation"=60
#set hue=10
#font /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/arial.ttf
title "RasPi-Cam"
timestamp "{c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}d-{c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}m-{c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}Y {c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}H:{c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}M:{c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}S ({c7f7cb1468c0d02af358b3ce02b96b7aadc0ce32ccb53258bc8958c0e25c05c4}Z)"
jpeg 50
save /var/www/data/snaps/snap.jpg

Some settings required careful tweaking, since most webcams are optimized for indoor use. Although the settings above resulted in pictures of reasonable quality, I noticed that they were pretty much overexposed on bright sunny days. And they were far too dark at night. It turned out that the auto exposure function of my webcam is unable to deal with changing light conditions.

Therefore I did some research on how to change the settings dynamically, depending on time of day. It turned out to be a simple task using some python scripting.